Characteristic damage of fruit from wasp species. This was created from yellow jacket wasps, but similar damage is caused by bald faced hornet and various other wasps and true hornets. Additionally, beetles (ie japanese beetle) and chafers can cause excavated cavities in the fruit like this. Although any loss to the crop is undesirable, these types of attack are often within acceptable tolerances.
- Apple Descriptions
- Northeast Fruit Grower's Journals & Logs
- Sustainable Farming and Organics
- The Kitchen Sink
- Vines and Plants